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These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other uses.
Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide.
Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations.
These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle).
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.The new molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide and is conjoined together by a glycosidic or ether bond.The reverse reaction can also occur, using a molecule of water to split up a disaccharide and break the glycosidic bond; this is termed hydrolysis.Another important disaccharide is lactose, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule.
As most humans age, the production of lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose back into glucose and galactose, typically decreases.Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell.